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October 28, 2018


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I don't understand the difference between 'lack in' and 'lack of'. There're some explanations available online, but I'm still not fully understood.

Lack of interest

lack in proper agenda ..
lack in ? lack of?

Sir, i have a question. Can i use () when i have some confusion in the answer in reading and in listening like Game(s).

Writing Task 2:
Introducing the topic
giving a straightforward answer
Main Paragraph 1:
Topic sentence
Idea 1
Idea 2
Idea 3
Main Paragraph 2:
Topic sentence
Main Idea
Restating the introduction


"lack of (something)" is by far the more common, where "lack" is being used as a noun, and the noun after "of" indicates what is missing (or lacking).

Less common is the phrase "be/am/is/are lacking in (something)": here "lacking" acts like an adjective.

"a lack in (something)" comparatively seldom used, unless of course "in" refers to the place or where we are talking about.

Sometimes, as a verb "lack", is followed by "in" something to indicate the area. For instance, "what she lacks in looks".



I sent you an email.
I have sent you an email.

which one is precisely correct?


I depends on the situation.

"I sent you an email" would normally require a date after it like "on 26th December", or a specific time like "three weeks ago".

"I have sent you an email" would often be used without a time marker, as the idea is about the present situation (you have been informed or already know) and exactly when the event occurred is unimportant. Occasionally a phrase like "this morning" (if it is still morning) is added, but this must be an unfinished period of time.

Also American speakers will sometimes use sentences such as "Did you do your homework yet?", whereas in British English one might say "Have you done your homework yet?", so sometimes the two tenses are interchangeable.

Structure in Use!

Some people say that now we can see films on our phones or tablets there is no need to go to the cinema. Others say that to be fully enjoyed films need to be seen in a cinema. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

People differ in their views regarding whether movies should be watched in a cinema. While some argue that, nowadays, films can be watched on the electronic gadgets like smartphones, laptops or tablets and it is unnecessary to see them in a movie theatre, I would agree with those who think that they ought to be seen in a cinema for the real experience.

One of the crucial reasons why some people think this way is that many of the new movies are readily available on the particular membership websites like Amazon Prime or Netflix, thus they can be easily seen on our phones or tablets per convenience. Another significant reason is that it might be difficult for many people to spare free time, especially for movies, from their busy routines. In such cases, they may prefer to watch movies on their electronic devices, in multiple parts, rather than to go to a cinema and spend hours to watch a single film.

However, I believe that to enjoy the finest details of films, they should be watched in a cinema instead of on small electronic appliances. This is because the special effects like VFX, animation, HD visual and sound effects seen in many of today’s movies can be enjoyed maximally in a cinema, and most of mobiles and tablets are not supportive to display these effects with equal clarity. Moreover, whereas movies can be enjoyed with family members at home, the feel of watching them in a large hall with a large group of people cannot be matched.

In conclusion, although it would be convenient and time-saving to watch films on our phones or laptops, I think nothing can replace the cinematic (audio-visual) effects and group enjoyment we get by watching them in a cinema.


"I would agree with those who think that they ought to be seen in a cinema for the real experience..." what does it mean? support or oppose?

you support them who believes that cinema hall is the better environment to enjoy a film despite any arguments. You expressed your contrast ideas against the people who think smartphones are much more convenient.

Some famous sports players advertise sports products.
Does the advantage outweigh the disadvantages?

It has been observed in many advertisements that some renowned sports players are promoting many sports goods. Despite the few positives of this scenario, I think it has more negatives.

Considering firstly the positives of this situation, the main advantage is that it motivates the majority of people to participate in different sports. This is because sports celebrities are followed by a large number of people; hence such adverts may tempt many of them to purchase advertised sports items and use them by taking part in various sports. Another benefit is that such adverts seem true and authentic to some people as they might have seen or read that the promoted items are being used by the particular sports player during the tournament, thus this can be beneficial for advocating better quality sports products and its brands to societies.

Nevertheless, the significant drawback of this situation is that people may sometimes be misguided by such adverts. To illustrate, there had been some cases that advertisers had hired sports celebs by paying them big money to promote their low-quality sports items, and the buyers later realized that the product they purchased is of inferior quality. Consequently, they lost their trust in a particular sportsperson as well as in the sport he plays. The second pressing problem of this situation is that as such a sports person has to give the fair amount of his time in the promotion of sports items; he would not get sufficient time for practicing his game and ultimately lose his concentration and passion from his sport.

In conclusion, considering the arguments presented in the second and third paragraphs, it is pretty evident that the drawbacks of this scenario are prominent than benefits.


"Considering firstly the positives of this situation,": redundant.

"there had been": tense error.

"some cases that where advertisers "

"later realized that the product they purchased is was of inferior quality": (reported speech sequence of tenses)

"sports items; he* would" : should be a comma, not semi-colon.

*need to find ways to deal with the he/she issue. "They" is possible.

-> scenario are more prominent

Checkout Simon's approach to the introduction and conclusion for this type of essay:



@ Kata
Thanks for the suggestions! For conclusion part, I completely agree with you and follow Simon's conclusion style. I wrote it differently because I wanted to know whether such a conclusion is acceptable to an examiner.

Can you please check my essay on 'Film and Cinema' topic? Thanks again!

@ Raju

"I would agree with those who think that they ought to be seen in a cinema for the real experience..." what does it mean? support or oppose?

It is supported. In other words, I would write it like 'I believe that they should be watched in a cinema for getting the real experience.'

Anything wrong you found in that sentence? Grammatically wrong or showing different meaning? Please clarify. Thanks for the observation!

Hi Vishaal

It's best just to follow Simon's example.

Personally, I thought your conclusion too formulaic, non-specific, and too heavily reliant on referring back to body paras. Whether every examiner would take the same view, I know not. (And having met some of them, I would hesitate to peer into their mind !)

As Simon said somewhere, it is the body paragraphs that really make the difference to your score, because that is where your argument is developed, where the cohesion and coherence comes out, where the true extent of your phraseology and topic vocabulary becomes apparent, and where you are forced to use non-formulaic sentences and glue them together grammatically, thus exposing any grammar weaknesses. Examiners are certainly not entirely stupid, and know what to look for, and where to look.

For this reason I chose not to comment on the introduction or conclusion: it is better for you to focus your preparation on the body paragraphs and develop a wide range of topic vocabulary so that the ideas in the body paragraphs come across in more natural phrases.

Hi Kata

Make sense! Highly appreciate for your response!

Can you please check my essay on 'Cinema' (See above) and provide suggestions and/or corrections.

Some parents give their children whatever they ask and let them do whatever they like.
Is this good for the children?
What will be the consequences when these grow into adults in society?

It has been seen that some indulgent parents give free hands to their children and not restricting then for anything. In my view, this is not a good way to raise the children, and it would cause numbers of potential issues in the future.

To begin with, it seems to be true that lenient parenting style is dangerous for the children. This is because they would easily develop many of negative traits like lack of discipline, stubborn attitude, carelessness, greedy nature and so on if their parents give them full freedom and do not inflict the clear expectations and boundaries around them. For instance, if parents do not teach their children how to respect others, specifically elderly people, then there are higher chances of their growing as self-centered Adults. Consequently, they would not hesitate from harming others for their small needs and thus participating in some criminal activities.

Furthermore, indulgent parents are often responsible for growing conservative children. To illustrate, as the parents of such children did not teach them how to interact with others, they would fear in talking and sharing ideas with others. As a result, they could not be able to openly share their ideas with their office colleagues and boss, and this will probably become a roadblock in their professional growth. Additionally, because of this weakness they sometimes fail in making emotional bonding with their friends, wife, and child, hence they have to stay alone for the majority part of their life.

In conclusion, children of lenient parents are often at the risk of negative or poor developments, and this could lead them to become a criminal or lonely person when they grow into adults.

Hi Vishaal



-> ... spoil their children and are overly permissive/ fail to set proper boundaries.

"Restrictions" might be used when discussing a curfew for a teenager. "Spoilt" might be more used when discussing younger children.

2) "to raise the children": which children are being referred to? This impedes understanding, and thus lacks coherence, so it is not just your grammar score that might be affected. Did you mean (all) children in general ? If so, no article.

3) https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=numbers+of+potential+issues%2C+a+number+of+potential+issues&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Ca%20number%20of%20potential%20issues%3B%2Cc0

-> a number of potential issues.

4) "would cause": this reads as a 100% certain forecast for each and every child with no exceptions, and therefore is, I would submit, an over-generalization. -> might cause

5) "a lenient parenting style": why did you make this error?

6) "dangerous": really? They are going into danger, and might die? -> not necessarily the best

7) "do not inflict set the clear expectations and boundaries around them"

8) "their growing up as self-centered adults"

9) "hesitate to harm others": a bold prediction indeed, which again seems to apply to all such children without exception: over-generalization.

10) "To begin with", "Consequently," "Furthermore": there are penalties under Cohesion for over-use of linking words. It is unwise to begin too many sentences with adverbial linking words or phrases. If your ideas are sequenced logically, such linkers are largely unnecessary, so learn to write without them.

11) -> they would be fearful of talking

12) they could not be able to : grammar !

13) -> for the majority part of their life. Wild over-generalization ! How can you be so sure this will apply to all such children?

14) at the risk of negative or poor development, (NB singular here)

Incidentally, in my childhood, we were out and about and our parents had no idea where we were or what we were doing (no mobile phones), but as there was no spare money they were not indulgent, just took no interest, which is not the same thing at all. According to you, I should now be a criminal already.

I can't thank you enough for your response!
Point 2) I wrote the children because I wanted to say children of lenient parents.
3) I mentioned 'would cause' instead of 'will cause', is it still overgeneralization?
6) isn't it dangerous to society as well as themselves if such children will become criminals as they don't respect anybody? Also, I said there are higher chances in the previous sentence, so I didn't mean that all children will become criminals.

What I think is you are right, I need to write this essay again with the same ideas in a different way, I too just realized that I didn't present the sentences for special cases.

Can we connect online, I need your guidance for my final preparation. My exam date is near 1 December 2018.


(2) "It is not a good way" reads like a generalization, so follow with "to raise children". Alternatively, begin with "These children have not been properly brought up ..." to make the linkage explicit.

(3) "would cause" reads as a predictive hypothesis (second conditional). If you wish to back away from over-generalizations, get into the habit of using "might" and/or "sometimes", "largely", as I did in (2) and (10).

(6) I just thought "dangerous" was a bit over the top. "risks breeding unhealthy attitudes and behaviors"? "risks long-term damage to their psyche ", "risks developing anti-social tendencies", or something.

IMHO you writing has improved somewhat, just keep working on the topic vocab and grammar.

Thanks Sunita! I will certainly focus on both parts, and that will definitely reflect in my future essays.

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